Which came last—The supernova or the red giant?

The heaviest of the stable halogens , it exists as a lustrous, purple-black metallic solid at a standard conditions that sublimes readily to form a violet gas. The elemental form was discovered by the French chemist Bernard Courtois in It is the least abundant of the stable halogens, being the sixty-first most abundant element. It is even less abundant than the so-called rare earths. It is the heaviest essential element. Iodine is found in the thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency affects about two billion people and is the leading preventable cause of intellectual disabilities.

What are some examples of radioactive isotopes used in research?

Measurements of ultra-trace radioactive species, such as I, provide information for both chronologic calibration and anthropogenic emissions during the nuclear era. Here data are presented on I and other chemical parameters from two sediment cores collected in the Baltic Sea during Distribution of I in the sediment strongly relates to the liquid release records from the nuclear reprocessing facilities at Sellafield and La Hague.

However, syn- and post-depositional alteration of organic matter at the sediment—water interface and within the sediment column may have contributed to slightly obliterating the anthropogenic I signals. Indication of Chernobyl-derived I occurs in the sediment profile, but is apparently overridden by the overwhelming flux from the nuclear reprocessing facilities.

The iodine in the remaining trapping solution was further separated using solvent extraction after the addition of 2 mg of I carrier and the separated iodine, in the form of iodide, was precipitated as AgI for I/ I ratio measurement conducted by AMS at SUERC.

Research in the prehistory of the sun helps us compare the circumstances of the birth of the sun with those of other stars in our galaxy, setting the existence of the sun, the Earth and humans more firmly within the broader context of the billions of stars and planets and possibly other lifeforms that exist in the Milky Way. Going back further in time, though, we have to rely on other methods to date events.

One of the main tools to achieve this is radioactivity. Radioactive nuclei, by definition, decay as time passes by emitting energetic particles that can be very dangerous to living organisms. The rate at which they decay is defined by their half-life, which is the time it takes for half of the original nuclei to disappear.

A famous example is carbon , which has a half-life of 5, years. If the recovered bones of a human contain roughly half the amount of carbon present in the biosphere, that individual must have died 5, years ago. We know the age of the Earth from radioactive dating. Using the same techniques, we can also learn something about the major events in the prehistory of the matter in the solar system, such as the period prior to the formation of the sun. Ingredients for a solar system Elements in our solar system, except for hydrogen and helium which were created in the Big Bang , were produced by nuclear reactions in stars.

At some point, this heavier material became isolated inside a star-forming region of the galaxy, where the gas was cooler and denser than the usual galactic gas. Within this stellar nursery, gas collapsed to form a number of stars, including our sun. By timing the life span of this stellar nursery we can start deducing how massive it was and how many stars were born alongside our sun.


It seems that there are two versions that are being filtered to society when it comes to Space, Mars, and classified files relating the two. The first is that we have not been to Mars, there is a lot of work to be done and our technology is still very limited. The other one is the exact opposite, a version that several individuals have backed up over the last decade.

Oct 18,  · Iodine has a half-life of million years and can cause cancer of the thyroid; ruthenium is produced by nuclear fission and high doses can be .

Moon Dust and the Age of the Solar System Answers in Genesis , the leading young-earth creationist ministry, disowns cosmic dust arguments. The most amazing thing about the cosmic dust argument is that it is still being used! It has coasted along on obsolete evidence, and nothing but obsolete evidence, for the last 25 years!!

It nicely illustrates how creationists borrow from each other and never do any outside reading. The obsolescence of this argument has been brought out in numerous debates and published in countless books, journals, and newsletters. It can be discovered by anyone who exercises his or her library card. It’s not a state secret! What does it take to get through to the creationist brain?? The earliest use of the cosmic dust argument that Van Till Van Till et al, could find was in an article by Harold Slusher, which was published in the June issue of Creation Research Society Quarterly.

Slusher made several blunders which are handed down in the “scientific” creationist literature to this very day. In the cosmic dust argument received its big kick-off from Henry Morris’ book, Scientific Creationism. Pettersson’s upper estimate for the influx of cosmic dust, a figure he considered risky, was based on particles he collected from two filtration units in the Hawaiian Islands.

One was located near the summit of Mauna Loa, Hawaii, and the other near the observatory on Haleakala, Maui.


It can also cause sialadenitis an inflammation of the salivary gland , gastrointestinal disturbances, allergic reactions and rashes. Potassium iodide is also not recommended for those who have had an allergic reaction to iodine, and people with dermatitis herpetiformis and hypocomplementemic vasculitis, conditions that are linked to a risk of iodine sensitivity. Perchlorate ions, a common water contaminant in the USA due to the aerospace industry , has been shown to reduce iodine uptake and thus is classified as a goitrogen.

Iodine was present in the early solar system but is not found on Earth. “I popped the halite in the machine and got this amazing peak showing an abundance of xenon That told us immediately it wasn’t terrestrial material.

Groundwater from the Abbotsford-Sumas Aquifer was sampled to determine the fate of I that infiltrates below the root zone. Modeling of vadose zone transport was performed to constrain the travel time and retardation of I. However, pulses of elevated I continued for several months. The increases in I concentrations from both Vancouver and Saturna Island were synchronized, and occurred directly after the initial release from the FDNA.

The groundwater response and the modeling results suggest that I was partially attenuated in soil, which is consistent with its geochemical behavior; however, we conclude that the measured variability may be due to Fukushima I entering groundwater. The primary radionuclides released were I half-life:

Retired US Marine claims he spent over 15 years in space and on Mars protecting five human colonies

This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January An extinct radionuclide is one that scientists believe was formed by primordial processes, such as stellar nucleogenesis in the supernova s that contributed radioisotopes to the early solar system, about 4. Generally, radioisotopes with a decay half-life shorter than about million years are not found in nature, except for those generated continuously by a natural process, such as cosmic rays , or a decay chain of much longer lived isotopes, such as uranium or thorium.

A routine sample preparation procedure for extraction of iodine from milligram amounts of solid materials has been developed and aimed for measuring the I concentration by the ultra-sensitive accelerator mass spectrometry method.

Bulk sediment loss-on-ignition LOI as a predictor of median grain diameter d50 , 7beryllium and iodine activity, respectively, for all bulk stream sediments. Ordinate axis is shared. Channel margin sediments are shown in solid green, riffle sediments in open red, and pool sediments in open blue. The relative activities of I and 7Be in sediment are dependent on the differential decay rates of I and 7Be during particle transport, deposition, and storage, as well as on inheritance of 7Be from previous or extended atmospheric exposure predating the FDNPP disaster.

The strong correlation of I and 7Be in channel margin deposits along the entire length of Mink Brook suggests uniform inheritance and residence time of I in this depositional environment. In this circumstance, the differential decay rates of I and 7Be can be exploited to constrain the age of the iodine-bearing sediment Here we assume an initial I-7Be composition equivalent to that of topsoil from our headwater floodplain site, where the soil was found to be saturated, overland flow appeared active, and lateral connectivity of the surrounding hill slope with the stream channel appeared in this manner to be qualitatively high.

The corresponding maximum no inheritance transport-plus-storage age for channel margin sediments are thus calculated as 5. In contrast, within the active stream channel, in both riffle and pool environments, sediments exhibit pronounced and variable departures of radionuclide activities from the I-7Be correlation that distinguishes channel margin sediments Fig.

Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities (2008)

Phillips, with the help of Eric Phillips. Gulf War Syndrome, a. Although other mutations may contribute to the cascade of debilitating events, such as C Y, which is associated with Hemochromatosis, the above three genetic conditions formed the core group in this study. Concomitant multiple vaccinations may increase the severity of adverse reactions.

Nov 01,  · 1 results from for each of 5 “remainder” organs (excluding the skin and the lens of the eye) that receive the highest doses. 2 For the purpose of weighting the external whole body dose (for adding it to the internal dose), a single weighting factor, w T =, has been specified. The use of other weighting factors for external exposure will be approved on a case-by-case basis until.

We will review them briefly, to provide not only a classification of general value, but also an appreciation of the nature of the problem and the challenges that face us. Overt Disasters Overt disasters are environmental releases which leave no ambiguity about their sources and their potential harm. Examples are Seveso, Bhopal and Chernobyl. Seveso plays the role of prototype for chemical industrial disasters Homberger et al. The accident took place on 10 July in the Seveso area, close to Milan, Italy, in a plant where trichlorophenol was produced, and it caused the contamination of several square kilometres of populated countryside by the powerfully toxic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin TCDD.

More than people were evacuated, and restrictions were applied to another 30, inhabitants. The most clearly established health effect was chloracne, but the picture of health consequences possibly linked to this incident has not yet been completed Bruzzi ; Pesatori Bhopal represents, probably, the worst chemical industrial disaster ever Das a, b; Friedrich Naumann Foundation ; Tachakra


Abstract Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima were analyzed for carbon, cesium and iodine isotopic compositions before and after the nuclear accident. The elevated I and , Cs concentrations are attributed to direct exposure to the radioactive fallout for the pre-fallout-expended leaves and to internal translocation from older parts of the tree for post-fallout-expended leaves. However, fractionation between radioiodine and radiocesium is significant during transportation from the source.

Japanese cedar leaf, 14C, I, , Cs, Fukushima nuclear accident Introduction Significant radionuclide activities were released into the environment as a consequence of the serious damage to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant FDNPP following the earthquake and tsunami that occurred on 11th March

Radioactive decay is a powerful tool. The predictable decay of radioactive isotopes can be used for far more than just dating old rocks. Scientists have used radioactive isotopes to determine the.

June 10, at 4: That method stresses these, presumably less precise, isotope dating methods a lot. They exclude the 40 million base date at If the used dating is Xe-I [ http: The paper says the following on those: First, it constrains the dynamical conditions of the disk from which the planets accreted and the physical properties of the disk material.

For instance, a late last giant impact implies that most of the mass was in the embryo population rather than the planetesimal population. Second, reconciling a late Moon-forming event with radiometric chronometers that suggest the opposite result may require challenging fundamental assumptions, such as envisioning a Moon-forming event that did not reset all clocks simultaneously and left significant parts of the mantle non-equilibrated with the core.

Having two about similarly massed bodies Mars, Theia formed at about the same place at about the same time is not a huge reach. Now I will argue that another of those links, the observed mantle heterogenities of Earth , indeed seem to make radiometric dating methods problematic as suggested. And that the Ma result, as being robust against such problems, is the more likely. This means that a major part of the impacted hemisphere would probably have been completely vaporized, but the opposite hemisphere would have been partly shielded, and would not have undergone complete melting.

A scientist rest his elbow against the disk. While eyeing the crowd, he calmly says to the bartender:

Isochronic – Iodine – I – 424HZ with 7.83HZ

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